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The State University of New York at FredoniaReed Library

Citing: In-Text Citations

In-Text Citations

There are two different ways to write in-text citations: parenthetical in-text citations and narrative in-text citations. In-text citations must be included in the main text of your paper. Insert a citation immediately after any information you take from another source. Each in-text citation must correspond with an item in your reference list.  

There are numerous rules for writing in-text citations. This page covers some of the basics. We recommend consulting chapter 8 of the APA Manual for complete in-text citation guidelines.

It is up to you as the writer whether you use parenthetical in-text citations, narrative in-text citations, or a mix of both. Just be sure to cite your sources! 

In-text Citation Examples

Parenthetical Narrative
Many ethical and data security concerns with learning analytics have been raised, especially as it relates to students’ right to privacy (Jones & Salo, 2018). According to Jones & Salo (2018), if students are aware data is being collected, they may alter their intellectual behaviors, decreasing the number of viewpoints being shared (p. 313).
Additional Examples
Number of authors Parenthetical Narrative
One author (Morselli, 2020) Morselli (2020)
Two authors (Sinclair & Rockwell, 2020) Sinclair & Rockwell (2020)
Three or more authors (Marcotte et al., 2020) Marcotte et al. (2020)

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