There are two different ways to write in-text citations: parenthetical in-text citations and narrative in-text citations. In-text citations must be included in the main text of your paper. Insert a citation immediately after any information you take from another source. Each in-text citation must correspond with an item in your reference list.
There are numerous rules for writing in-text citations. This page covers some of the basics. We recommend consulting chapter 8 of the APA Manual for complete in-text citation guidelines.
It is up to you as the writer whether you use parenthetical in-text citations, narrative in-text citations, or a mix of both. Just be sure to cite your sources!
In-text Citation Examples
|Many ethical and data security concerns with learning analytics have been raised, especially as it relates to students’ right to privacy (Jones & Salo, 2018).||According to Jones & Salo (2018), if students are aware data is being collected, they may alter their intellectual behaviors, decreasing the number of viewpoints being shared (p. 313).|
|Number of authors||Parenthetical||Narrative|
|One author||(Morselli, 2020)||Morselli (2020)|
|Two authors||(Sinclair & Rockwell, 2020)||Sinclair & Rockwell (2020)|
|Three or more authors||(Marcotte et al., 2020)||Marcotte et al. (2020)|
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